For the last two weeks the Little League Baseball World Series has captured the imagination ... Read More
For the last two weeks the Little League Baseball World Series has captured the imagination ... Read More
Listen to what Anthony Marino, MD had to say about the New England Patriots, and ... Read More
© 2014 New Hampshire Orthopaedic Center
In June, I participated in an amazing trip to Arusha, Tanzania with a group of five female joint surgeons and 45 additional health care professionals including physician assistants, physical therapists, nurses, anesthesiologists, and medical doctors. Our group is called WOGO – Women Orthopaedist Global Outreach. In four days, we operated on 32 patients and replaced 44 severely arthritic knees. In addition we offered an educational seminar to local physicians and nurses and had Tanzanian orthopaedic residents scrub with us in the operating room. We traveled to an orphanage and to a rehab hospital for children recovering from surgery where we put shoes on children’s feet and smiles on their faces. This trip was the hardest thing I have ever done, but also the most rewarding.
Most patients in Tanzania cannot afford to have joint replacement surgery as they are responsible for the cost of the implants. The average yearly income is only $500, and sixty eight percent of the population is below the international poverty rate living on less than $1.25/day. Even for the upper class, joint replacements are often not financially feasible.
The Arusha Lutheran Medical Center (ALMC) is a 125 bed hospital with four operating rooms. Access to health care is often limited in Tanzania especially in rural areas; there is only 1 physician and 2 nurses for every 10,000 people. ALMC was clean but much of the equipment was old. For example, we used duck tape to secure one operating room table to the floor as its locking mechanism no longer worked. The lights frequently went out and it would take a few minutes before the generator would restore power.
On our first day, we saw over 54 patients in clinic who had been pre-screened for surgery. Most took anti-inflammatory medications, however very few had received other treatments such as physical therapy or injections. Most patients had very severe arthritis with fixed deformities. Later in the day, we presented each patient and their X-rays and determined if they were good candidates for surgery.
That afternoon we started doing knee replacements. We did three cases that evening and spent the next three days in the OR. It was an intense and often overwhelming first few days, with no opportunity to adjust to the seven hour time difference!
For anesthesia during surgery patients received both a femoral and spinal nerve block, and after surgery patients received only Tylenol and tramadol for pain. There were no narcotic pain medications such as Oxycodone or Percocet available, yet every patient got out of bed the day after surgery and walked in the hallway with our physical therapists. The hospital floor did not have an area large enough for physical therapy so our patients went outside to the large balcony for their therapy
Our nurses were helped by the local nurses at the hospital who were eager to learn from us. The staff was very helpful and our patients received excellent care. For example, if we needed labs drawn someone would come and draw the blood and bring the results back up to the floor within 15 minutes, much faster than in our hospitals here! There were no computers or electronic medical records so patient charts were on paper and X-rays on film. Patients’ families were very involved and often a small crowd would follow a patient as they walked in the hallway.
How will our patients do after surgery? We partner with hospitals where there are orthopedic surgeons who are supportive of WOGO and will provide follow up care as needed, and can contact us with any concerns.
Tanzania is beautiful but also very rural and very poor. Young children herd cattle and goats in the fields and on the side of the road, women walk with baskets on their heads and with children strapped to their backs. Everything is dusty and dirty and outside the city many roads are unpaved. Only 45% of homes have electricity. Conditions for women are particularly dire. Young girls are vulnerable to being kidnapped and sold as “house slaves”. Forty percent of women have been victims of physical violence and one in five women are married to a man with more than one wife. Women are responsible for all the housework, food preparation, and childcare.
One of the most moving experiences I had on this trip was visiting the Plaster House. This is a home for children to rehabilitate after surgery. Many children in Tanzania have severe bone deformities; cleft palate, spina bifida, club feet, and cerebral palsy are also common. The Plaster House is a clean, safe place where children can recover for three to six months after surgery. The parents often do not visit during this time. The children are fed, cared for, and educated. For some, these may be the best living conditions they ever experience. We spent time coloring with these children and distributed shoes in partnership with Soles4Souls. These kids were so excited to have shoes. It is amazing how much joy I saw on those kids faces. It brings tears to my eyes when I think about it.
The following day we traveled almost 2 hours into the countryside to an orphanage and school. People from the village lined up for shoes. We set up soccer nets that we had brought along with our cargo of medical supplies as a gift for the children. I had the opportunity to walk to a small village where I saw both incredible poverty and beauty. The homes were smaller then my living room for as many as 10 people. There was no running water or electricity or toilets. Children were in tattered clothes and without shoes. The older kids were taking care of the younger ones; there were very few adults. However, when you looked around there was a wildness and a beauty to the countryside that is difficult to describe.
During the 10 days I was in Africa I met so many incredible people; my patients, my team members, and the many people who are doing so much good in such an impoverished country. At times the problems confronting a third world country seem overwhelming, but I do believe that you can make a difference one person at a time.
These trips are very expensive, yet do so much good. We will be planning our next one soon! Please consider donating to WOGO – 314 S. South Street, Mount Airy NC 27030
Elbow injuries in adolescent athletes have gained quite a bit of attention over the last decade with increased sports participation, physician awareness, and media attention. There has also been an alarming rate of increased surgical procedure performed in younger athletes in that timeframe.
The ulnar collateral ligament is a 3 part ligament on the inside part of the elbow that connects the upper arm to one of the forearm bones (ulna). It provides stability to the hinge joint of the elbow resisting the outward directed stress placed on the elbow during the throwing motion. Pitching a baseball has been shown to generate forces at the elbow very close to the ultimate strength of the ulnar collateral ligament, which over time and repetition, can lead to failure of the ligament.
Some patients may report an actual “pop” felt while throwing, which would represent an acute (sudden) injury to the ligament. Many others will describe a vague pain, consistent in its location and during the late cocking and early acceleration phase of the throwing motion. This is more consistent with a chronic attenuation (thinning) of the ligament. Some may also describe some nerve symptoms, such as numbness or tingling into the fingertips (from the ulnar or “funny bone)nerve). It’s important to also know the patients history of position played, frequency of play, number of pitches, prior treatments and offseason regimen.
Four potential risk factors for elbow (and shoulder) injuries in youth baseball have been identified: Number of pitches thrown (in a game, season, and year), type of pitches, pitching mechanics, and physical condition. The number of pitches thrown seems to be the most important. Recent studies have suggested that the curveball may not be any more dangerous than any of the other pitches, and that the change up is likely the safest. Pitch counts were mandated by Little League Baseball many years ago based on these studies and can be found at www.littleleague.org. Pitching outside of the league makes tracking some of these things difficult, as many young athletes will play on multiple teams in different leagues who may not follow these guidelines.
The first testing should be a thorough physical exam by a Sports Medicine Fellowship trained Orthopaedic Surgeon. If an ulnar collateral ligament injury is suspected, after some screening x-rays are performed, an MRI scan may be warranted. This is a test that will demonstrate the soft tissues around the elbow.
A trial of non-surgical management is encouraged, especially in the young adolescent athlete. This usually consists of at least 6 weeks of no throwing as we begin physical therapy. There are often many areas of deficiency to address, including motion deficits of the shoulder, pitching mechanics, weakness of the core and kinetic chain (the center of the body (hips, abdominal, gluteal, back) and legs) as well as the shoulder. Once these deficits have been identified and addressed, then a VERY gradual, SUPERVISED throwing program may begin. The patient must remain pain free through this course and progression to be able to return to competition. In the event that this fails, or that the tear is complete on evaluation, surgery may be required if the patient is still planning to play, and to pitch. Surgery is reconstructive, which means the ligament is replaced by a tendon graft connecting the two bones. Often a tendon from the forearm or the opposite hamstring (at the knee) is used. Rehabilitation is long and deliberate and a return to competitive throwing is expected 9-12 months after surgery. Outcomes from surgery reveal a very high rate of return to the same level of competition. However, a very recent report from the American Orthopedic Society for Sports medicine in Major League pitchers shows a trend toward a higher ERA, WHIP (walks and hits per inning pitched), and innings pitched thereafter. Very few, if any, adolescent pitchers requiring this surgery will ever make it to the Major League level. Below are some useful guidelines from USA Baseball.
MRI: Not the Whole Story
William P. Rix, MD
MRI is an imaging tool commonly used by orthopedists in making a diagnosis in patients with musculoskeletal complaints. It is frequently mentioned in the media when professional athletes are injured:
“Major League Baseball pitcher John Smith’s production has fallen over the past few games. MRI of his sore shoulder reveals no structural damage and rest is indicated.”
“National Football League lineman Jim White’s episodes of low back pain have limited his starts this season. An MRI showed he will need surgery and will be out for the rest of the season”.
The implication of these common references in the sports media is that an MRI offers the definitive answer for musculoskeletal problems.
MRI is a state-of-the-art imaging technique that depicts the anatomy of our musculoskeletal system in astonishing detail. Despite its unquestionable value, however, it can be confusing and in some cases, downright misleading. This is because the abnormality seen on the scan may not be the cause of the patient’s problem. Remarkable as the technology is, it is no substitute for a good history and physical examination.
To illustrate, let’s look at some actual cases:
In all three cases, the MRI showed a true structural abnormality that could be corrected surgically. However, one does not operate on an abnormality just because it`s there. It has to be the cause of the patient`s problem. The MRI did not tell the physician if the findings seen on film were actually causing the patient’s symptoms. An MRI cannot stand by itself. It must be ordered and interpreted in the context of a proper history and exam. In these patients, the MRI findings were age-related or post-surgical and not contributing to their complaints.
The proper sequence in arriving at the root of a patient’s orthopedic problem is a thorough history, a proper examination and, usually, an x-ray. If further investigation is needed to come to a specific diagnosis, further testing, including MRI is then employed.
Since the time of Hippocrates, the backbone of delivering good patient care has been the history and physical. It still is.
What are they?
A concussion is an injury to the brain that alters its function, the effects of which are usually temporary. These effects are variable and can include difficulty with concentration, memory, balance, and coordination.
These can range from very subtle, to obvious and severe. Headache, loss of memory, and confusion are often seen. Loss of memory can include events prior to the injury and will often include loss of memory of how the injury occurred.
MOST CONCUSSIONS DO NOT RESULT IN LOSS OF CONSCIOUSNESS.
Things to look for include:
Seizures, altered vision, pupils that don’t appear symmetric, or prolonged loss of consciousness require immediate evaluation
The brain is a very delicate structure encased in a solid container (skull). Anything that causes the brain to knock up against the side of the skull may result in a concussion. A DIRECT BLOW TO THE HEAD IS NOT REQUIRED TO RESULT IN A CONCUSSION, NOR IS DIRECT CONTACT. Rapid deceleration of the head can cause the brain to hit the skull and result in a concussion.
Participation in collision sports such as lacrosse (in this case) is a risk factor. Another very important risk factor is having had a previous concussion.
On field evaluation includes evaluating consciousness and protecting any neck injury. There are various sideline tools used to assess the athletes symptoms and ability to recall or think. These are brief screening tools for the in-game setting which are usually followed by more comprehensive neurocognitive testing.
There is no routine x-ray or medical test to diagnose concussion. CT SCANS AND MRIs ARE TYPICALLY NORMAL with a concussion. If a patient develops specific neurological symptoms such as prolonged or worsening pain, loss of vision, asymmetric pupils, repeated vomiting or seizures CT scans and/or MRI can tell if there is bleeding on the brain that may be the cause.
1. “When in doubt, keep ‘em out”. The first step is removing the athlete from participation as soon as a concussion is suspected.
2. Rest. This includes rest from both physical and mental activity. This includes all “thinking” activities like reading, video games, TV, etc.
3. Tylenol (acetaminophen) is useful for headaches, but NSAIDs such as Ibuprofen (Motrin, Advil), Aleve, and Aspirin are NOT recommended, as this may increase the risk of bleeding.
4. Progression back to activity begins with mental activity first.
5. Some studies have suggested that gentle exercise that keeps the athlete below their symptom threshold might help decrease the possibility of post concussion syndrome and help both athletes and non-athletes return to activity.
Return to Play
Most athletes will have resolution of symptoms after two weeks and a return of their neurological testing to a baseline (“normal”) in 7-10 days. Internationally accepted return to play criteria includes:
Once an athlete has no symptoms at rest, they can then progress through a guided protocol of rehab to return to play. Each stage takes 24 hrs, so that it takes at least 5 days to progress through the protocol prior to full game participation.
Preventative measures are of paramount importance in high risk sports. Players, Coaches, and parents have a role to play in not only recognition of sports concussions, but in changing the behavior and culture that may result in concussion. Many players, coaches, and parents may feel like aggressive behavior is required in certain sports. These feelings are often heard expounded from the sidelines. Proper technique, age appropriate rules for contact, and sportsmanship can result in decreased incidence of concussions.
Helmets and new helmet technology have been shown to decrease the risk of concussion and newer technologies are promising.
There is lack of conclusive evidence that the use of a mouth guard or specific types of mouth guards reduce the risk of concussion. Mouth guards do, however, reduce the risk of dental trauma which makes them invaluable in that role.
Post Concussion Syndrome is the persistence of any of the following after a concussion: headaches, dizziness, fatigue, irritability, difficulty with concentration and mental tasks, memory impairment, insomnia, and reduced tolerance to stress. It’s suspected if these symptoms persist more than 1-6 weeks after initial injury. Athletes who present initially with more symptoms take longer to recover.
Epilepsy: The risk of developing Epilepsy is doubled in the first 5 years post concussion.
Second Impact Syndrome: This is when an athlete sustains 2 successive injuries before recovery of the first is complete. Younger athletes seem especially susceptible to this, which can be a devastating complication leading to rapid brain swelling and death. Second Impact Synrome highlights the importance of restricting athletes from play until they have NO SYMPTOMS.
CTE (Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy): This is a degenerative condition of the brain that occurs years after recovery. It is the topic of much conversation and research. Early in CTE, patients can have problems with irritability, depression, and poor memory. Later on, it can affect physical movement and speech. (See Junior Seau, Jim McMahon, both former NFL players)
There are multiple resources available for education for players, parents, coaches, and trainers on this topic which include programs for preseason baseline testing for players which is instituted in many local high schools and routinely at the collegiate and professional levels.
|NCAA Concussion in Sports||www.ncaa.org/health-and-safety/medical-conditions/concussion|
|Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Heads Up Toolkit for High School Sports||www.cdc.gov/concussion/HeadsUp/high_school.html|
|Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Heads Up Toolkit for Schools||www.cdc.gov/concussion/HeadsUp/schools.html|
|Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Heads Up Toolkit for Physicians||www.cdc.gov/concussion/HeadsUp/physicians_tool_kit.html|
|Computerized neuropsychological tests|
|U.S. Army Medical Department, Automated Neurocognitive Assessment Metrics (ANAM)||www.armymedicine.army.mil/prr/anam.html|
**The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery Current Concepts Review, Vol 94, Issue 17
Another I would add to this is sportslegacy.org, which is an organization headed by Chris Nowinski and Dr. Robert Cantu with cutting edge education and policy on this enormously important matter. There are several links and guides to setting up and maintaining an active concussion surveillance and management program for teams and institutions.
What Is It?
An overuse syndrome resulting in painful inflammation at the top of the shin bone where the patellar tendon attaches to the bone in an adolescent or preadolescent athlete.
This condition is marked by pain and tenderness with or without (usually with) a bump at the top of the shinbone (tibia). The pain is often increased with activity (or just after finishing the activity), and is often relieved with rest. It may be associated with a noticeable tightness in the muscles in the front and in the back of the thigh.
An apophysis is a growth plate that does not contribute to the length of a bone. Growth plates are made of cartilage. Cartilage is weaker than bone in the immature skeleton. Apophyses are often found at sites where tendons attach to bone. Apophysitis is inflammation at these attachment sites, the adult equivalent of which is tendonitis.
Repetitive activities, such as jumping, running, pivoting, etc. , coupled with a child who is growing, can lead to increase pull and tension on these delicate areas. This leads to pain and inflammation in those areas. The body may attempt to repair these areas by forming more bone, leading to a lump forming.
Osgood-Schlatters is a clinical diagnosis. A plain X-ray is often obtained to rule out other less common problems and to sometimes confirm the diagnosis. MRI IS NOT NECESSARY TO DIAGNOSE THIS CONDITION.
© 2014 New Hampshire Orthopaedic Center